Travelers Health

  • Destinations
    Health information for travel to over 200 international destinations
  • Vaccinations
    General information about vaccinations for travel
  • Diseases
    Diseases related to travel, including malaria and yellow fever
  • Illness & Injury Abroad
    Prepare for your trip
  • Yellow Book
  • Find a Clinic
    Locate a travel health specialist or yellow fever vaccination clinic
  • Stay Healthy & Safe
    Insect protection, safe food & water, survival guide.

 Revaccination (booster) schedules



Japanese encephalitis

Full duration of protection unknown. Neutralizing antibodies may persist at least 2 years after primary immunization.

Hepatitis A (HAV)

Booster doses not recommended for adults and children who have completed the primary series (2 doses) according to the routine schedule

Hepatitis B (HBV)

Booster doses not recommended for adults and children who have completed the primary series (3 doses) according to the routine schedule1


1 annual dose (children 6 months to 9 years of age and certain incompletely vaccinated children should receive 2 doses separated by at least 4 weeks the first time that influenza vaccine is administered). Live attenuated influenza vaccine is approved only for healthy nonpregnant persons 2–49 years of age.

Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)

2 doses of MMR vaccine separated by at least 4 weeks or other evidence of immunity (e.g., serologic testing) is recommended for persons born after 1956 who travel outside the United States. Revaccination is not recommended.

Meningococcal Quadrivalent A,C,Y, W-135

Revaccination for persons who received meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine or meningococcal conjugate vaccine and who remain at increased risk for meningococcal disease (including some international travelers). Revaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended after 3 years for children who were previously vaccinated at ages 2–6 years. Revaccination with meningococcal conjugate vaccine is recommended after 5 years for persons who were previously vaccinated at ages 7–55 years, and every five years thereafter for persons who are at continued risk.2

Pneumococcal (polysaccharide)

One-time revaccination 5 years after original dose for persons with certain underlying medical conditions (e.g., asplenia) or persons who were first vaccinated at younger than 65 years of age.


Booster doses not recommended.

Polio (IPV)

A single lifetime booster dose is recommended for adults who have written documentation of having completed a primary series.

Rabies pre-exposure vaccine

No serologic testing or boosters recommended for travelers. For persons in higher risk groups (e.g., rabies laboratory workers) serologic testing and booster doses are recommended. See Table 2-17.

Tetanus/diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap)

Tetanus and diphtheria booster dose is recommended every 10 years. A single dose of adolescent/adult formulation Td that includes acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended to replace one Td booster dose for persons 11–64 years of age. See ACIP statement for details.

Typhoid oral

Repeat series every 5 years.

Typhoid IM

Booster dose every 2 years.


Revaccination is not recommended.

Yellow fever

Repeat vaccination every 10 years.

When your family travels and is away from the usual eating and sleeping routines, the chances increase that someone might get sick. It can take time to adjust to the food, water, and air in a new environment, and kids can be especially vulnerable to a variety of travel-related problems, including motion sickness, diarrhea, and infections.
But some early planning and smart packing can help you keep the trip healthy for everybody. Here are some things to keep in mind when your family prepares to travel.

Special Considerations for Travel Abroad
If you're heading overseas, start preparing well in advance. For instance, it's important to find out what vaccinations your kids (and even you) might need because:

  • Different countries have different risks and requirements and may require specific vaccines. For example, your family will need the yellow fever vaccine if you're traveling to sub-Saharan Africa or tropical South America, but not to Eastern Europe.
  • Some vaccines require more than one dose and are given in a series over a period of days or sometimes weeks.
  • Most vaccines take time to become effective in your body.

Most immunizations should be given at least 1 month before travel, so try to schedule a doctor's visit 4-6 weeks before your trip. Even if you're leaving in less than 4 weeks, you should still make an appointment, as kids might still benefit from shots or medications.
Depending on your travel plans, your doctor may recommend that in addition to routine immunizations, you and/or your child be vaccinated against:

  • Typhoid
  • Hepatitis A and B
  • Yellow fever
  • Japanese B encephalitis
  • Meningitis
  • Rabies
  • Polio
  • Tetanus diphteria

Also, kids of any age can get malaria so if you're traveling to a country with a malaria risk, talk to your doctor about antimalarial drugs. The doctor will decide the best preventative medication based on your destination and your child's health status.
Ask your doctor or visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website for a list of recommended or required vaccinations (the site includes a section devoted to travelers' health that you can search by destination), and be sure to take your child's immunization records with you if you're traveling internationally.

A variety of resources promoting immunization and NIAM can be found at the links below. You may want to consider customizing these tools for use locally.

For more information review this: